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Making the Connections
Subject: Applied Math, Arithmetic
Grade: 3-5 , 6-8

Brief Description

This is a lesson plan to show students the connections between numbers. It is a great way for students to understand how all numbers have a relationship to one another


Students will be able to use the "Horton Chart" to see relationships between numbers and make equivalent fractions and decimals. Students will be able to identify fraction and decimal size. Students will be able to change a fraction to find the "greatest common factor", find percent and make equivalent decimals.


Mathematics application, number sense, process skills, and comprehension

Materials Needed

Pencils, paper, bookmark, mathematics response journal, highlighter, "Horton Chart," overhead projector

The Lesson

Start by asking students, "who can tell me what percent means?" After listening to the assorted answers, use the overhead to show a text book definition. Then ask someone to retell the meaning of percent as it was just presented. Then ask students to write down six examples of a percent. Give an example of the percent sign and three percentages on an overhead projector. After each student finishes writing examples of percents inside of their math journal let them share their responses with the total group. Allow students to come up and start a times table segment on the Horton Chart. Let them fill in the answers. Then ask the students to find the greatest common factor, give examples, explanation, and repetition. This requires several days. After most students understand the concept of the "gcf" go on and have them make the equivalent fraction. Let volunteers repeat what the equivalent fraction is. Let them come to the "Horton Chart" and use the fractions, the "gcf" and try to make an equivalent fraction. From the equivalent fraction have the students practice making a decimal by dividing the denominator into the numerator. After they have learned this method(Takes about a week) have them change the percent to a decimal by dropping the percent sign and moving the decimal two places to the left. This will take a while. Lots of practice, and patients. Then show them how to make the equivalent fraction by keeping the decimal in place and adding zero to the end of the decimal. It will take a little time for most students to remember this very simple method. The Horton Chart is a good way to teach these relationships which are often presented in text books as separate math skills. As the students use the chart throughout the year they become very comfortable with the connections that numbers make and are often times able to simply look at a decimal or fraction or percent and know its equivalent.


Once the entire "Horton Chart" is understood and students can understand how numbers connect. Let them make a copy to keep in their math journals and a copy to take home. There should also be a "Horton Chart" on display in the classroom at all times. The students will have mastered seventy five percent of all mathematics requirements if the chart is understood by the middle of the middle of the school year.

Lesson Plan Source

Thelma White-Horton/fifth grade alternative education teacher/Peskoe Elementary/ Leisure City, Florida 33130

Submitted by Thelma White-Horton, [email protected]
Peskoe Elementary, Leisure City, Florida,


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