Writing about math can be a very positive and fruitful learning experience. Here's a look at some of the benefits; a variety of writing categories and topics; and suggestions for creating a positive environment for writing about math.
Writing can help students think about ideas in new ways and develop critical thinking skills, while involving students directly in the learning process. When students incorporate personal experiences into their writing, learning becomes more meaningful. Writing opens new lines of communication between student and teacher, and teachers can use students' writing to assess understanding and make instructional decisions. Informal writing can make a topic more appealing and stimulate creativity. Writing about math can be a path to understanding, as students clarify and "take ownership" of concepts and connect math to the real world.
As you read through this partial listing of NCTM Process Standards, reflect on how writing about math can engage students in each.
Writing to explain how a problem was solved is a common and valuable form of mathematical writing, but it's just one of many possible forms. Writing in different genres taps different ways of thinking and keeps assignments fresh. Here's a grab bag of possibilities:
The following strategies are some you can use to create an environment in which writing about math is a positive learning experience.
Ask good questions worth communicating about, with multiple possible approaches.
Make sure early activities are fairly easy and satisfying for all students. (We don't want to compound a possible bad attitude about math with a bad attitude about writing! We want writing to enhance the experience of learning math.)
Discuss the assignment before writing time begins. Make sure students understand why you are asking them to write.
Begin with verbal explanations as a shared class activity. As students explain orally, ask questions to help them clarify their responses.
Don't just "assign" writing -- facilitate it in many ways; guide students as they learn how to be more effective thinkers and communicators.
Provide writing prompts -- including guidelines, criteria, rubrics, and strategies.
Share models of successful student writing.
Ask students to consider a specific audience Imagine they are explaining to a young child step by step, or write as if they are mathematicians (using proper terminology).
Provide frequent opportunities for cooperative learning: Discuss beforehand in small groups; write in pairs or small groups; respond to writing in small groups.
During writing time, circulate, ask questions, and elicit ideas
Provide plenty of time for writing.
Provide constructive feedback. Respond to the content.
Prompts 1-12 come from Marvelous Math Writing Prompts, by Andrew Kaplan, Scholastic, 2001. Prompts 13-18 come from Standards-Based Math Graphic Organizers, Rubrics, and Writing Prompts for Middle Grade Students, by Imogene Forte & Sandra Schurr, Incentive Publications, 2001.
Article by Wendy Petti
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