Education World provides a nearly two decades-long timeline that chronicles a sampling of legal and cultural changes related to acceptance of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgendered (LGBT) individuals, same-sex couples and the civil rights-related issue of same-sex marriage. Timeline items should be considered snapshots and are not meant to represent the full breadth of these very complex issues.
The timeline begins in 1996—the same year Education World was founded—with the passage of the Defense of Marriage Act (DOMA) and ends with the Supreme Court ruling that same sex marriages are legal in all 50 states. The timeline is useful for classroom discussions centered on the following questions:
Then-President Bill Clinton signs DOMA into law with overwhelming support from both houses of Congress, creating a federal definition of marriage as a union between one man and one woman. This means that same-sex marriages performed in states that allow them are not recognized at the federal level. Section 3 of DOMA indicates that spouses in same-sex marriages do not receive federal recognition in terms of insurance benefits for government employees, Social Security survivors’ benefits, immigration and the filing of joint tax returns.
Then the star of the popular sitcom “The Ellen Show,” comedian Ellen DeGeneres stuns audiences by choosing to reveal her sexual orientation in the context of her show. She comes out in primetime on national television, spurring a negative media frenzy. Shortly thereafter, her show is canceled, and she falls into a depression over her faltering career and the stress of the ordeal. Now host of the daytime talk show “The Ellen Degeneres Show” launched in 2003, DeGeneres regains success and marries actress Portia de Rossi in 2008.
The brutal killing of gay teen Matthew Shepard becomes a rallying point for the rights of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgendered (LGBT) individuals. It touches off a movement to label similar attacks hate crimes and to mandate more severe punishments for perpetrators of such crimes. Following Shepard’s death, then-President Bill Clinton urges Congress to expand federal hate crime law to apply to attacks based on sexual orientation, gender and gender identity. The Matthew Shepard and James Byrd Jr. Hate Crimes Prevention Act is finally signed by President Obama in 2010.
In addition to operating the only national crisis lifeline for LGBT teens and young adults, Trevor offers unique suicide prevention services to youth in digital spaces, including counseling via instant message through TrevorChat and TrevorSpace, the largest online social network specifically for LGBT young people.
The organization is a volunteer-driven national grassroots organization whose mission is “to secure legally recognized civil marriage equality for all, without regard to sexual orientation or gender identity, at the state and federal level through grassroots organizing, education, action and partnerships.”
Perkins, a former Louisiana legislator, authors the nation’s first “covenant marriage” law, which passes in 1997. (When a couple opts for a covenant marriage, they agree to waive their right to the no-fault divorce. In the event that the marriage does fail, only adultery, abuse, abandonment or a lengthy separation will allow a divorce to take place.) Upon becoming FRC president six years later, Perkins embarks on this mission: “At a time of global political uncertainty where foundational institutions are endangered as never before, where marriage is undermined and human life itself is being redefined, leaders must stand strong in the pulpits as well as the halls of power.”
Eight states propose bans on same-sex marriage, and seven of the states (Colorado, Idaho, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Virginia and Wisconsin) pass them.
|This map shows how various California
counties voted on Proposition 8.
California officially legalizes same-sex marriage in June 2008, overturning a previous ban. A few months later, a legal opposition named Proposition 8 is raised. The proposed law, voted upon by the California electorate, passes by a slim margin, amending the state’s constitution so that it identifies the institution of a legal marriage as being only between one man and one woman. The initiative’s passage invalidates California’s previously legal same-sex marriages. Those unions are later “grandfathered” back to legal legitimacy, but no further same-sex marriages can be performed in the state.
Gay student Clementi begins sharing this part of his life with the people he is close to during the summer after his high school graduation, just before beginning classes at Rutgers University. At college, Clementi’s privacy is invaded when his college roommate sets up a webcam to spy on him. Viewing his roommate’s Twitter feed, Clementi learns he has become a topic of ridicule in his new social environment. He ends his life several days later.
San Francisco Archbishop Salvatore Cordileone chairs the United States Conference of Catholic Bishops’ Subcommittee for the Promotion and Defense of Marriage, which “assists the bishops and State Catholic Conferences in promoting and defending the authentic teaching of the Church regarding the nature of marriage as a covenant between one man and one woman directed to the good of the spouses and the procreation and education of children.” This blog post states the subcommittee’s position.
The National Organization for Marriage launches a radio ad urging African Americans not to vote for President Obama, in response to his support of same-sex marriage. Says NOM President Brian Brown, “President Obama's endorsement of same-sex marriage, his administration's determination to repeal DOMA and the Democratic Party’s call for the repeal of North Carolina’s marriage amendment puts Obama at odds with the values of the African American community.”
These three states join other states and a district that have previously legalized same-sex marriages (Massachusetts in 2004; Connecticut in 2008; and Iowa, Vermont, New Hampshire and D.C. in 2009).
NY State Senator Reverend Ruben Diaz leads an all-night vigil sponsored by the National Organization for Marriage. Pentecostal ministers and members of the New York Hispanic Clergy Organization travel to Washington, D.C. to join the “March for Marriage” demonstration in front of the United States Supreme Court. Says Diaz of his participation in the event, “We believe marriage is between a man and a woman. It’s as simple as that.”
|A demonstrator's sign supporting traditional marriage. Source: Elvert Barnes, Flickr.com|
Chelsen Vicari, a Concerned Women for America staff member, writes a blog post blasting Starbucks for its support of same-sex marriage. A 2010 article on the CWA site poses this question about same-sex marriage: “Will we protect marriage as the primary institution protecting women and children, or will we surrender to the forces that claim no one has obligations to others and that adults can do anything they want…regardless of how those actions affect society, especially children, and undermine the public good?”
Showing just how much the act of celebrities coming out has changed since Ellen DeGeneres’ experience, “Today” weekend anchor Jenna Wolfe appears on the program to reveal that she is pregnant, and that she is dating her colleague, NBC foreign correspondent Stephanie Gosk. Wolfe’s sexual orientation seems to be considered the least noteworthy part of her announcement, with her pregnancy framed as a bigger deal than the gender of her partner. Wolfe is congratulated by her peers including Matt Lauer, Al Roker and Savannah Guthrie.
After being addressed by appellate courts, a challenge to DOMA (and an attempt to defend Proposition 8) reach the Supreme Court.
'They ask for equal dignity in the eyes of the law,' Kennedy wrote of same-sex couples in the case. 'The Constitution grants them that right,' according to a story on NPR.org.